Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Původní práce / Original papers

ACTA CHIRURGIAE ORTHOPAEDICAE ET TRAUMATOLOGIAE ČECHOSL.,
85, 2018, p. 331 - 335

Klasifikační systémy hodnocení pes equinovarus congenitus a jejich možné využití v predikci průběhu a výsledku léčby Ponsetiho konceptem

Classification Systems to Evaluate the Clubfoot and Their Potential Use to Predict the Course and the Results of the Ponseti Method Treatment

J. JOCHYMEK, J. TUREK, T. PETERKOVÁ
Klinika dětské chirurgie, ortopedie a traumatologie Lékařské fakulty Masarykovy univerzity a Fakultní nemocnice Brno

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

The clubfoot ranks among the most frequent paediatric structural deformities of the lower extremity. Currently, the Ponseti method is considered the gold standard for the treatment. To evaluate the degree and severity of the deformity, clinical classification systems have been developed, commonly used in clinical practice. This study aims to verify whether the Pirani and Dimeglio clinical scoring systems can be used to predict the results of treatment by the Ponseti method.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The study included 31 patients. The patients had been referred from the neonatal departments to the Department of Paediatric Surgery, Orthopaedics and Traumatology in Brno with the diagnosed clubfoot deformity, where they were treated by an erudite orthopaedist experienced in this field according to the Ponseti treatment standards. The Pirani and Dimeglio clinical scoring of the deformity were performed always before the commencement of the therapy and after the second plaster cast fixation. The number of plaster cast fixations, the necessity to carry out achillotomy and the relapse rate were set as the parameters of treatment results. In the first stage of statistical analysis, the respective clinical systems were correlated with the treatment results, in the second part of the study the patients were based on the clinical evaluation divided into 3 groups depending on the severity of the deformity, and these groups were subsequently compared.

RESULTS

22 patients from the group (71%) underwent percutaneous achillotomy and in 3 patients (9.7%) a relapse occurred. To correct deformities 7.1 corrective casts were used on average. The correlation between the number of plaster cast fixations and classification systems was significant in all the cases, with the strongest dependency shown by the correlation with the Pirani score after the second corrective cast (r = 0.594, p< 0.001). Positive correlation was found also between the necessity to perform achillotomy and both the classification systems. In this case the strongest correlation was established in the case of the Pirani clinical scoring after the second plaster cast fixation (r = 0.488, p = 0.003). Conversely, significant correlation was not established between the relapse rate and the used classification systems, not even in a single case (p > 0.05). In the second stage of the statistical analysis, in the case of the Pirani scoring before the therapy no difference was found between the individual groups with diverse severity of clubfoot deformity during the evaluation of the aforementioned parameters of treatment results. In the Pirani classification after the second plaster cast fixation, a statistically significant difference was established in the number of plaster cast fixations (p = 0.003) and the necessity to perform achillotomy (p = 0.012). When the Dimeglio scoring was applied before the therapy, a  statistically significant difference between the groups was found in the number of plaster cast fixations (p = 0.031) and after the second plaster cast fixation in the relapse rate (p = 0.035).

DISCUSSION

Although the clinical scoring systems belong to key indicators of severity of the deformity and are commonly used in clinical practice, the current literature provides only an inconsistent picture of their application in predicting the course and the results of treatment. Concurrently, the authors opinions on this issue differ. The scoring in later stages of treatment shows a better predictive value than the scoring at the beginning of the treatment, which was confirmed also by the results of our study.

CONCLUSIONS

Even though the clinical scoring systems show a certain dependency on the parameters of the treatment results, in practice their predictive function can be used to a limited degree only. The complexity of the evaluation of the deformity itself and subsequently of the results of treatment requires also the use of other parameters than the clinical classifications only so that the prediction of the course and results of the treatment of clubfoot according to Ponseti shows a higher degree of reliability.

Key words: clubfoot, Ponseti, Pirani classification, Dimeglio classification

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