Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Původní práce / Original papers

84, 2017, p. 368 - 371

Bakteriurie a symptomatický močový infekt při antimikrobiální profylaxi krátkodobě zavedených močových katétrů - prospektivní randomizovaná studie u  pacientů po implantaci kloubní náhrady

Bacteriuria and Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infections during Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Patients with Short-Term Urinary Catheters - Prospective Randomised Study in Patients after Joint Replacement

1 Ortopedická klinika Fakultní nemocnice a Lékařské fakulty Univerzity Karlovy v Hradci Králové
2 Ústav klinické mikrobiologie Fakultní nemocnice a Lékařské fakulty Univerzity Karlovy v Hradci Králové
3 Ústav lékařské biofyziky Lékařské fakulty Univerzity Karlovy v Hradci Králové
4 Lékařská fakulta Univerzity Karlovy v Hradci Králové



A very serious complication following joint replacement surgery is periprosthetic joint infection that can be caused by a urinary tract infection. Insertion of an indwelling urinary catheter constitutes a risk factor that may result in urinary tract infections. The aim of this prospective randomised study was to compare the occurrence of significant bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of removal of an indwelling urinary catheter by cotrimoxazole in two doses and with no administration of antibiotics. We also monitored the incidence of potential periprosthetic infection following the endoprosthesis implantation. The findings of preoperative urine tests were compared with the declared negative preoperative examination.


The study included patients indicated for a total hip or knee replacement with a negative urine culture as a part of the preoperative testing. Where leukocyteria was detected, urine culture by mid-stream clean catch urine was obtained. The second part included patients, in whom an indwelling urinary catheter had to be inserted postoperatively for urine retention and/or monitoring of fluid balance and who were divided into two groups on a rota basis. No antibiotics were administered to the first group, whereas Cotrimoxazol 960 mg tablets p.o. was administered to the second group, 14 and 2 hours before the removal of the catheter. The urine culture test was performed 4 hours after the removal of the indwelling urinary catheter, in both the groups. The test was repeated after 14 days and a questionnaire was filled in to report urinary tract complications. Considered as significant bacteriuria by urinalysis was the laboratory finding of > 10x4 CFU/ml in case of a single pathogen or > 10x5 in case of multiple pathogens. The results were statistically processed by Fischer´s exact test with the level of significance = 0.05.


In the first part of the study leukocyturia was detected by a test strip in 112 of the total of 478 patients. In 10 women, significant bacteriuria was found. Altogether 50 women and 50 men were randomly assigned to the second part of the study. The indwelling urinary catheter was in place for 4 days on average. In men, no statistically significant difference was detected in significant bacteriuria findings, in women a statistically significant difference of p = 0.00162 was found after the removal and after 14 days the borderline of statistical significance of p = 0.0507 was achieved, but no symptomatic urinary tract infection was present. In the period from 20 to 32 months following the total joint replacement, no periprosthetic infection caused by urinary tract infection was reported.


There is enough evidence to prove the correlation between the symptomatic urinary tract infection and periprosthetic infection. On the other hand, asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common finding in patients before the planned hip of knee joint replacement and its treatment is not recommended.

No consensus has been achieved as yet regarding the method of antibiotic prophylaxis for an inserted urinary catheter. Antibiotics are administered throughout the period of catheterisation by an indwelling urinary catheter, during its removal, or are not administered at all. In our study antibiotics were administered during the removal of an indwelling urinary catheter and a  statistically significant difference was found in women. It concerned, however, only a higher incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria not treated by antibiotics, which in the next follow-up period did not lead to periprosthetic infection.


Despite the negative pre-operative urine culture, frequent incidence of leukocyturia and symptomatic urinary infections were detected in a fairly high number of cases. Therefore, we recommend asking the patients during the hospital admission process specifically about the urinary infection symptoms. The results of our study show that antibiotic prophylaxis during the removal of indwelling urinary catheters placed for a short-term is unnecessary.

Key words: endoprosthesis, urinary catheter, bacteriuria, urinary tract infection

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