Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Původní práce / Original papers

ACTA CHIRURGIAE ORTHOPAEDICAE ET TRAUMATOLOGIAE ČECHOSL.,
85, 2018, p. 144 - 148

Penetrující poranění srdce a velkých cév - patnáctiletá zkušenost kardiochirurgického servisu v rámci primárního traumacentra

Penetrating Injuries of the Heart and Great Vessels - Fifteen Years of Experience of the Cardiac Surgery Service as a Part of the Major Trauma Centre

M. ŠIMEK1,3,4, J. KONEČNÝ1, R. HÁJEK1, I. ČIŽMÁŘ2,4, V. KUTĚJ3,4, V. LONSKÝ1,4
1 Kardiochirurgická klinika Fakultní nemocnice Olomouc
2 Traumatologická klinika Fakultní nemocnice Olomouc
3 Oddělení urgentního příjmu Fakultní nemocnice Olomouc
4 Lékařská fakulta Palackého univerzity Olomouc

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Outcome analysis of penetrating cardiac and great vessels injury within the 15-year existence of the cardiac surgery service as a part of the major trauma centre of the University Hospital Olomouc.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Retrospective analysis of a group of a total of 16 patients who underwent a  surgery for penetrating cardiac and great vessels injury since II/2002 to XI/2016. The dominant causes of penetrating trauma were stab injuries (15 patients, 94%), in one patient only (6%) it was a gunshot injury. The mean age of the patients included in the group was 42.9 ?16.1 years, with men significantly prevailing (13 patients, 81%). A total of 7 injured persons (44%) were haemodynamically stable when admitted, 9 injured persons (56%) were unstable or in critical condition. The average transfer distance was 48.8 ? 34.5 km; the injured were admitted on average 115.9 ? 154.8 minutes after being injured. Preoperatively, all the injured suffered from pericardial effusion (>5 mm) confirmed by TTE (81%) or CTA (19%). In 4 patients (25%) pericardial drainage for cardiac tamponade was performed before surgery.

RESULTS

All the penetrating cardiac and great vessels injuries were repaired by cardiac surgeon, in one case only (6%) the extracorporeal circulation support was used. The injury of coronary arteries was in one case managed by CABG and in the other case by ligation of the peripheral part of the coronary artery. In 4 patients (25%) also a penetrating injury of other organs was simultaneously managed. The mean ICU stay reached 85.8 ? 91.9 hours, on average 5.6 ? 9.3 units of red blood cells were administered during the in-hospital stay which lasted on average 7.1 ? 2.4 days. In the group a  nonsignificant increase of left ventricular ejection fraction (44.1 ? 4.7 vs. 49.3 ? 3.2, p = 0.882) was reported at discharge of the injured patients. One patient died on the 78th day of hypoxic brain damage (6% three-month mortality). The long-term survival analysis showed 94% one-year and 88% five-year cumulative survival in the group.

DISCUSSION

The incidence of the penetrating cardiac and great vessels injury is directly dependent on the crime level in the respective countries and regions. A  cardiac arrest, severe hemodynamic instability, unconsciousness, serious concomitant injury, gunshot injury, multiple or atrial injury represent independent predictors of death in these injuries. The total three-month mortality in penetrating cardiac and great vessels injury ranges from 18 to 42%, the presence of vital signs at the time of hospital admission is associated with 78-92% probability of survival. The surviving patients show excellent long-term results with the exception of those who suffered a severe damage to valve apparatus or with significantly depressed left ventricular function.

CONCLUSIONS

Our experience proves a high survival rate of patients with penetrating cardiac and great vessels injury. The centralisation of the care into the major trauma centre with a cardiac surgery background, a unified treatment algorithm, and a vital interdisciplinary cooperation are the key goal of successful management of these injuries.

Key words: penetrating injury, cardiac injury, great vessel injury, outcome

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